Researchers analyzing pigments in a Spanish cave have determined they represent examples of cave paintings made before the arrival in Europe of modern humans. “The cave formations 'played a fundamental role in the symbolic systems of some Neanderthal communities', though what those symbols meant remains a mystery for now,” per a write-up in the Guardian. I'm a little wary of the term symbolic in this context. It seems plausible that the paintings might have marked off a ritual space, but short of clear evidence of an effort to represent, I see no reason to attribute symbolic meaning to the markings. Original: